An excellent-sized benefit of virtual currencies is that they are decentralized. No bank or authority poses as the middleman for virtual forex transactions, which means that bills can be transferred without delay from one account to another other. This creates blessings and dangers to safety. Conversely, transactions no longer incorporate private records and can’t be erased from the blockchain. Still, alternatively, the government can’t hint transactions back to a person and can’t prevent a transaction from being concluded.
Bitcoin, for higher or worse, became used to sponsor WikiLeaks after authorities had frozen its debts. (1) On comparable grounds, there’s the continuing risk that cryptocurrencies are used to sponsor terrorism, with Europol estimating that such transactions are located in 40% of high-profile investigations. (2) Moreover, digital currencies may be used for cash laundering.
These dangers have inevitably drawn the eye of EU and domestic regulators.
In a European Parliament report of 2018, it turned into noted that the most pertinent problems concerning cryptocurrencies are:
- the anonymity of its customers;
- the go-border nature of transactions; and
- the death of a central authority.
EU regulation concerning digital currencies centers on numerous anti-cash laundering directives. (3)
In response to the constrained scope of the EU Fourth Anti-money Laundering Directive (2015/849 EU) (AMLD4), which did no longer amplify onto digital currencies, the European Union adopted the EU Fifth Anti-money Laundering Directive (2018/843/EU) (AMLD5), which entered into pressure in 2018 and ought to be transposed locally with the aid of 10 January 2020. This directive turned into the first to introduce cryptocurrencies into its definition and covers cryptocurrency offerings (i.e., custodial wallet companies and virtual forex companies). These entities are regulated similarly to banks and monetary establishments and have to perform client due diligence (i.e., reporting suspicious activitieses te applicable authorities). Finally, the entities could be a challenge to registration. Notably, the AMLD5 does not wholly cope with the difficulty of anonymity of transfers and users. (4)
In Austria, no domestic legislation immediately applies to digital currencies, although operations using cryptocurrencies might also fall below current legal guidelines. The Financial Market Authority (FMA) has stated that Bitcoin is explicitly now not inside their authority “because of its lack of company”.(five) Similar reasoning needs to observe in different digital currencies.
On the alternative hand, particular commercial enterprise fashions can also have licensing requirements. For instance, structures for getting crypto property, which settle bills in euros, require a license below the Payment Services Act 2018 (ZaDiG 2018; Zahlungsdienstegesetz 2018). Purely technical services would no longer be included through these licensing requirements but could maximum likely be captured via the need for a wellknown alternate license necessary for sporting on a alternate in Austria.